what is insulin resistance . what happened when you are under insulin resistance . must read this article.

What is Insulin Resistance? Why should you consider it?
First of all, Let’s understand what insulin is and How it is produced.

Insulin is a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas located behind the abdomen. The food that you eat, breaks down into sugar molecules in the mouth and then reaches the bloodstream. Now, the sugar molecules in the bloodstream increase the blood sugar level

Insulin takes up the role to supply the fat cells, muscle cells, and liver with the sugar molecules to use as energy for the whole body. Mostly, the extra glucose (blood sugar) is stored in the liver for later usage. This extra glucose is utilized by the body when you are fasting.

Suppose if your body cells have an adequate amount of glucose for energy, then they don’t respond to insulin to take up the further glucose. This situation of body cells resisting insulin is called insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. As a result, to decrease the blood sugar level, your pancreas produces more insulin. And, when a situation arises, where your pancreas cannot secrete insulin at this level, your blood sugar level remains elevated for a long time.Signs and Symptoms of Insulin Resistance:
Insulin resistance might develop in your body without showing any prominent signs during the initial stage. But, If you experience associated symptoms, then it is advised to get your tests done to confirm your blood sugar levels. Some of the symptoms of Insulin resistance include,

Excessive thirst or hunger
Frequent urination
High cholesterol level
High blood pressure
Constant cravings for sugar foods
Hair loss
Mood swings
Acanthosis nigricans, a skin condition developed in your body due to insulin resistance. This skin condition induces dark patches on your neck, armpits, and groin areas.
Your doctor will suggest you take the confirmatory test if you have one or two of the above symptoms.

Diseases associated with insulin resistance:
PCOS is often misinterpreted as a disease-related only to ovaries. But, PCOS is developed both because of metabolic and reproductive disorders. Insulin resistance and excessive secretion of insulin act as a root cause for developing PCOS in many people. Excessive insulin levels convert sugar cells into fat storage in the body and cause obesity. At the same time, it also increases the secretion of male hormones. Therefore, suppressing the hormones with hormonal pills is not a complete solution to PCOS. Treating PCOS by understanding the underlying root cause is crucial.

Thyroid disorder:
Similar to the PCOS condition, excessive insulin accumulated in your body induces fat storage, especially around the abdomen region. Chances of weight gain are high due to this situation. And, weight gain leads to the development of hypothyroidism in most women.

Type 2 diabetes
Normally, your blood glucose level rises to a certain level after eating. The pancreas will receive a signal to release insulin to manage the blood sugar levels in normal. And when your cells and organs don’t react to insulin to absorb the glucose for energy, your blood sugar levels remain increased constantly. This stage leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in your body.

Prediabetes is a health condition that is also linked to insulin resistance. In this disease, blood sugar levels are higher than usual, but not that much higher as in the case of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes leads to type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, and stroke in some people if ignored completely. Symptoms of prediabetes are similar to that of type 2 diabetes. Prevent type 2 diabetes by treating prediabetes proactively.

Kidney disorders
According to the research conducted by the American Journal of kidney diseases, it is found that people with renal disorders had insulin resistance at the earlier stage itself.

The kidney plays a prominent role in insulin metabolism. It removes waste from your body through urine. Furthermore, it regulates the production of red blood cells. Compared to other organs in your body, the kidney responds to insulin to take up the glucose in the bloodstream. But it resists insulin by not regulating the sodium level found in the blood. An imbalance in the sodium level increases the risk of high blood pressure.There are several factors that contribute to developing insulin resistance in your body. It includes,

Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle
Adults, insulin resistance are more common in people aged above 40
Smoking and alcohol consumption
Intake of carbohydratesFasting glucose test
This test is done to check your fasting blood sugar level. It is done after 8 hours of eating or drinking (fasting for 8 hours). This test’s results conclude the following,

Below 100 mg/dL - normal level
100-125 mg/dL - Prediabetes
Above 126 mg/dL - Diabetes
There is also a disadvantage to this test. It doesn't mean you're normal if your fasting glucose level is normal. Because fasting glucose levels increase only after a certain level of insulin resistance in your body. Insulin levels rise years before it gets evident in the blood sugar level.

Therefore, a normal level of fasting glucose doesn't confirm you are not insulin resultant. Insulin resistance and insulin levels may not be diagnosed perfectly by this test.

A1C Test
The A1C test shows the blood sugar levels that have been maintained on your body for the past three months. A1C test results state,

Below 5.7 % - normal
5.7 - 6.4 % - Prediabetes
Above 6.4 % - DiabetesGlucose tolerance insulin response (GTIR) detects insulin resistance and Prediabetes at an early stage. In the GTIR test, your fasting glucose level will be noted first and your blood sample will be collected every 30 minutes.

Let's have a look at how the test is performed: When the patient arrives at the lab after overnight fasting (12 hours of fasting) fasting blood sample is collected. Then the patient will be given a glucose liquid dissolved in the water to consume. Glucose consumption time is noted, and after 30 minutes, blood sample is collected. Again after 30 minutes, third blood sample is collected. At last, after 1 hour, fourth blood sample is collected. Total number of four samples is collected.
For instance, if you reach your lab by 7.45 AM, fasting glucose levels will be noted. You will be given an oral liquid at 8.00 AM. Then the following are the timings of the next samples.
Second sample - 8.30 AM
Third sample - 9.00 AM
Fourth sample - 10.00 AM

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